The image on the left is a typical shotgun house. The middle image is a camel back shotgun house, and the image on the right is a double shotgun house.
The image on the left is a row of creole style townhomes, and the image on right is a double gallery townhouse.
This is a picture of an old creole cottage.
The shotgun house is one of the most common types of homes for the middle and lower classes in New Orleans. This type of house is one room wide and three to five rooms deep. The shotgun house usually has a porch with a symmetrical facade and shuttered windows and doors. There are many variation of the typical shotgun house. One of those variations is the camel back shotgun. Unlike the typical one story shotgun house these houses have a second story addition on the rear of the home. Another variation of the classic shotgun house is the double shotgun. This house is a two residence home, 2 rooms wide and 3-5 rooms deep. The facade is the same as the classic shotgun house but it is reflected and has an overhanging roof.
The townhouse is a very tall and narrow house. This house would most be seen in areas like the French Quarter. The houses are 2-3 stories tall and very long. The townhouse has a long, narrow footprint oriented to the street. There is a grand entrance door leading into a hallway that passes by the rooms. There also distinct styles of townhomes. One of the main styles is the Creole townhouse. This is a lot like a two story creole cottage, it has a symmetrical facade, and dormers on the roof. There are balconies that open up to the street, and a distinct creole style. Another type of townhouse is the American townhouse. This style has an extravagant facade leading into a main entrance with a hallway. The last style is the double gallery style. This style, like the American townhouse, has an extravagant facade. Unlike the American townhouse the double townhouse is twice as wide and goes straight back like a shotgun house. There are many other styles of townhomes that vary with time and style, but they are all similar to these three.
One of the first styles of vernacular architecture was the creole cottage. This design was heavily influenced by both French and Spanish construction methods and the local climate. The typical Creole Cottage is 1‐ to 1½‐ stories tall, 2 rooms wide and 2 rooms deep, often with small storage rooms. These houses were very simple in design but still functional. Creole Cottages have hipped or side gabled roofs, frequently with tall, narrow dormer windows. The cottages have an overhang over the front of the building to protect from weather and 4 symmetrical openings in the front of the building.
The creole style is a very distinct style that originated in New Orleans. Creole is a blend of the French, Spanish, and Caribbean architectural influences fused with the demands of the hot and humid climate. Some elements of the creole style are brick, stucco, french doors, no dominate entrances, and shutters. The creole style was also very simplistic and wasn’t blended with other styles. These design principles can be found in architecture around the city.
This style of design is very prevalent in the design of the southern homes like the ones in New Orleans. During the 18th and early 19th centuries the architecture of the Greek world was brought back because it was a symbol of democracy. Some key elements of the Greek revival style that are present in the vernacular design in New Orleans include trim around windows and doors, and full height porches with round columns or boxed piers. Also roofs are topped with triangular designs, and are gabled or hipped. The Greek revival design was primarily shown in mansions and plantation homes, but it showed up a lot in townhouses and shotgun homes.
Was a style during the 19th century which was influenced by early Italian Renaissance and Northern Italian vernacular architecture.It was first popular in England and the American East Coast which began in the 1840's and came to New Orleans in in the 1850's. Some characteristics about this style are windows that can be tall,double hung,four over four,two over two or two over one, with arched heads and hood moldings that are symmetrical facades with hipped roofs. This style can be seen all over different houses but mostly on shotgun houses.
QUEEN ANNE/ EASTLAKE
The Queen Anne and Eastlake styles came in to New Orleans in the 1870s and continued to be used up until the early 20th century. The styles were widely popular across the US, spread through the use of commonly available architectural pattern books and made possible by new mechanized woodworking techniques. Elements of both styles are similar and often intermixed.
A variety of homes were built whose design drew inspiration from popular conceptions of Italian villas, Renaissance palaces, medieval English cottages, Gothic Revival church buildings, Spanish Mission architecture and many other picturesque architectural styles-https://www.nola.gov/nola/media/HDLC/Guidelines/03-TypesStyles.pdf
This style can be found in New Orleans which basically was a style that turns things from normal to something from the past influenced by Spanish architecture.
CULTURE OF NEW ORLEANS
New Orleans as a whole seems completely unusual to the average American, as the cultural diversity of the city has no limits. It combines traits of both northern and southern U.S. cities, as well as the cultural aspects of the Native Americans and European settlers. Most people that visit the city can find a handful of things relatable and recognizable from their hometown, but a good majority of things found in the city would seem completely out of place. Most American people would find New Orleans unusual, but that is because it truly is not like any other city in the U.S., as it seems to be more like a European city than an American one.
The culture of New Orleans is usually different columns like music, art, movies, Broadway, and etc. the topic music the type of music that people play and make is Jazz and they always play Jazz in funerals in celebration and all other events. another topic is food or what I mean is recipes the well know dish in new Orleans is Gumbo is a type of beef stew and every recipes is different pass down generations to generations another thing they like they like to cook seafood shellfish. the last thing is sports the NFL is the new Orleans saints to me the saints is one of the best team in the NFL.
The French Quarter
-The French Quarter is one of the most unique parts of New Orleans, as it is authentically French, not a reproduction of French culture.
-The French Quarter had great luck during hurricane Katrina, as it was not completely destroyed, Conserving a great treasure of the New Orleans culture.
-The French Quarter was founded by, and possessed by the French originally but was taken by the Spanish. During the Spanish rule, Two devastating fires occurred, allowing the Spanish to rebuild in their own style, resulting in a great contribution to the vast mix of architecture today.
A Cultural Melting Pot
Throughout history, many different groups of different ethnicities and from different cultures passed through New Orleans, leaving their cultural mark on the city.
History of New Orleans:
-Louisiana was originally colonized by France in 1718.
-John Law gained control of New Orleans and brought over many French colonists, including many convicts, through a promotional campaign (the Mississippi Scheme) in order to strengthen the population.
-Many of the convicts who were forced to migrate were German indentured workers.
-Between October 1717 and May 1721, many Europeans moved to Louisiana, including New Orleans.
-Law’s company soon acquired the Company of Senegal, monopolizing the French slave trade. African slaves were shipped to Louisiana by this company, starting in 1719. Between 1720 and 1731, about 3,000 slaves were brought to Louisiana.
-New Orleans remained a French colony until the 1760’s, but is was an economic burden. Louisiana was transferred to Spain’s control through the Treaty of Fontainebleau in 1762 to make them an ally in a war against Great Britain.
-When they lost the war, Great Britain took most of Louisiana. Eventually, Louisiana would be transferred to American control through the Louisiana Purchase.
-Between 1764 and 1788, about 3,000 Acadian immigrants came to the New Orleans area that was still controlled by Spain. The Creoles did not welcome them and their democratic ideals, causing conflict until they adopted the Creole customs of slave trade and plantations.
-there was enough intermarriage to blur the lines between ethnicities and they adopted the Acadian culture. All poor, white, French speaking people in southern Louisiana became known as Cajun.
Cultural Influences on New Orleans:
In New Orleans, there is a mix of multiple cultures including: African American, Creole, French, German, Irish, Italian, Jewish, Spanish, and Vietnamese
-on sundays, hundreds of African slaves and laborers congregated to play music, dance, and socialize at Congo Square (current day Armstrong Park) at the edge of the French Quarter.
-African Americans fleeing the slave revolt brought voodoo
-African Americans primarily brought Jazz music, which spread during their celebrations at Congo Square. They also had a strong, more recent influence on hip hop, funk, gospel, rhythm & blues, and rock ‘n’ roll. The fame New Orleans has for music is strongly centered on the African American Culture
-African Americans brought the Mardi Gras Indians and the Krewe of Zulu, who are famous for their Mardi Gras parades. The Krewe of Zulu, which stemmed from the African American pleasure clubs (clubs where paying members received healthcare and life insurance help as well as put on parades and did community service), would dress as the stereotypes white Mardi Gras krewes believed about African Americans. The pleasure clubs would also dress in coordinated suits and lead brass bands in parades.
-Knows as gens de couleur libres(free people of color)
-When americans settled in the Faubourg St. Marie (St. Mary’s) on the uptown side of Canal St., forming the American Quarter, there was a lot of tension. Canal St. was no-man’s-land.
-operas, masquerades, and easy going cafes were all brought from Creole culture which caused conflict with the American’s ways of life
-Faubourg Marigny is a neighborhood that proves this tension. a Creole named Bernard de Marigny inherited a huge fortune including this land. While the Americans pushed him to make it a foundation, her sold it to other Creoles that covered it with cottages to house mistresses, second families, free people of color, artisans, and immigrants. It continued to remain a diverse area and is now the crazy, colorful, fun center of New Orlean’s bohemia. The American Quarter is full of skyscrapers and office buildings.
-Bernard de Marigny is also credited for popularizing the Creole dice game craps.
-The use of rich sauces, local herbs, red ripe tomatoes, and locally caught seafood were popularized by Creole culture and are still used in New Orleans’ unique and famous cuisine.
-The French were the ones to first colonize Louisiana. When New Orleans was founded, two engineers blocked out 66 squares that would be the start of the French Quarter or the Vieux Carré (Old City)
-The French were Catholic but not as strict and severe as some other Catholic groups were or as the puritans were. They brought Mardi Gras to Louisiana- a Catholic holiday which translates to “Fat Tuesday”. It was a time to indulge in material and sensual pleasures before giving up such things for Lent. This is what influenced the huge parties we know of now- giant parades lots of food, gifts, alcohol, and parties.
-A covenant of nuns was established early on to spiritually guide the colony. they inducted all races, colors, and statuses (free or enslaved). This Catholic character attracted people from other countries and ethnicities.
-Even while the French ruled over Louisiana, New Orleans remained predominantly French. They taught school in French, newspapers were published in French, and they only looked to France for fashion and culture. Even today, there is still a strong French influence even though the French language is no longer spoken there.
-New Orleans acted as a port for Germans to come through and head on westwards. Despite their moving on, German influence remained.
-German culture strongly influenced the beer industry, though it was temporarily halted during prohibition.
-Most funeral homes were German as Germans mostly filled positions such as of those who carry coffins. Most funeral homes still have German names.
-Most of the bakeries are still German and provide both German and French baked goods.
-Brough Saint Patrick’s Day to New Orleans where Magazine St. parade riders throw cabbages, carrots, potatoes, green beads, and Moon Pies to the crowds
-Established Irish churches that held sermons in english instead of French
-Popularized Irish theatre in New Orleans
-There is a slight Irish influence on words they use and the Garden District called Irish Channel still has the Irish architecture
-Irish pubs are still scattered throughout the city
-Italians brought the tradition of building huge St. Joseph’s Day altars
-They brought many popular kinds of cuisine, the most famous ones being muffuletta and Progresso soup that is now a nationwide famous brand
-Some Italians also played a part in the birth of Jazz and the swing era, bringing a bit of their culture to them both
-the famous Hotel Monteleone is a famous landmark in New Orleans that was established by an Italian Shoemaker.
-The Spanish popularized flat-tiled roofs, tropical colors, and ornate ironwork in New Orleans architecture
-all houses built under Spanish rule had to be stucco instead of wood and had to be close to the street and each other, eliminating the large yards they used to have. They also brought continuous façades, arched passageways, and rear gardens/courtyards hidden from street-view.
-There are also a lot of Spanish restaurants as people there have always enjoyed European cuisine.
-were the first to return after Katrina and rebuild neighborhoods, such as Versailles
-they celebrate the Tet Festival, or Vietnamese New Year, to share the Lunar New Year and their traditions with the rest of the city
-The well known Southern Louisianian culture
-they brought Gumbo, étouffée, and jambalaya. Crawfish boils are like the Cajun version of a Texas barbeque party.
-They also popularized the use of the fiddle, guitar, and accordion in music, typically in a two-step or waltz time signature with French lyrics.
-was considered a getaway for people from Europe and Africa to go and explore more about the different cultures n new Orleans
-before was a slave trade area with ships
-most people are religious in the area
-New Orleans is a foreign place and more european than american.
-Have a vibrant urban folk culture
-many neighborhood restaurant open by creative chefs